- Distinguish between advocacy journalism and mission journalism
Advocacy journalism is a genre of journalism that, unlike propaganda, is fact-based, but supports a specific point of view on an issue. Advocacy journalists might be expected to focus on stories dealing with corporate business practices, government policies, political corruption, and social issues. It is arguable that advocacy journalists serve the public interest in a way similar to muckrakers or whistle-blowers.
Mission Journalism is the type of journalism where a certain movement is supported and it does not have a specific point of view on an issue but supports the whole act that is right. Eg. In Nepal, during pro panchyat and anti-panchyat movement, mission journalism had a great role in it.
- Discuss the role of journalism in national development with special reference to Nepal.
Journalism is very powerful and considered to be the fourth state along Legislature, Executive and Judiciary. It works for the voice of the voiceless and always does what is right without biasness taking in account of the role it has to play, that is give information to the people. So, because of the unbiased responsibility it has towards the people, it helps a lot to develop a nation.
Journalism is always taking the side which is right and never tilts to certain parties of allies. It gives information to the people and gives them the ability to think and decide the truth. It provides truth with evidences for society to ponder upon. Therefore, during Rana rule when practicing right to information was a crime, because of the mission journalism of that time, Nepal was able to get democracy and the right to information.
- Discuss various variables affecting news coverage with special reference to the functions of news room.
News Coverage is affected by various variables such as:
News hole: News hole is space that is left after compilation of all the advertisement that is to be placed in news paper. The news hole determines which news can be covered or not. If the news hole is larger, other than important news can fit or else it does not gets coverage.
News flow and staffing: The news flow has a significant impact on the news coverage. If news has a importance and interest value today, the same news may not have similar importance and interest the next day. Eg: During earthquake, the very day we got the news of the Richter scale of earthquake. The news the next day ought not to get the same coverage as the same day.
Audience: Audience is one of the most vital things to take in mind while giving out news. News can be of various types and the audiences differ as per their type. E.g. entertainment news can be viewed more by teens and news on sports more by men views in the sections they divide in the newspaper.
Availability of material: The availability of materials in news content also determines its news coverage. If the news institution has sufficient audio and visual materials then it gives more coverage but if it has less then it will give less importance to cover that news.
- Discuss the concept of framing and priming.
Framing is the way a communication source defines and constructs a any piece of communicated information. Framing suggests that how something is presented to the audience (called “the frame”) influences the choices people make about how to process that information. Frames are abstractions that work to organize or structure message meaning.
Priming means highlighting some special events in a news report. While framing the editors keep special information in the beginning to highlight the issue called priming.
- Discuss press release as a credible source for reporters.
Press release is a printed ofiicial letter that is signed and stamped. It comes to the reporters for covering a certain issue which states the issue in the press release. Reporters work with press release because it is an official invitation to reporters which is credible and comes from reliable sources. Hence, it is credible source of news.
- Show your acquaintance with press conference.
Sometimes, Press release is not enough. Generally, during this time formal program or institution or individual organizes press conferences where sources have something to tell the general audiences through media.
- Show your acquaintance with interview.
Interview is the most used technique used to get information from sources. It is the communication between two parties. It is the communication between journalist and the source. It is conducted by appointment. Some of it’s forms are:
- Studio (indoor) interview
- Live or recorded
- Oral or written
- Face-to-face or telephone
It can be informative, entertaining or structured, unstructured. For the preparation of an interview, the journalist must do full research about the person or topic. They must carry equipments such as recorder, camera and other such required equipments.
- Discuss various types of news structures with suitable examples.
News structure is the format in which the news can be written. There are four types of news structure listed below:
- Inverted pyramid: This type of news is written where the most important information is written in the lead and less important accordingly. It is easier to cut out and make the news short in this type of news structure for sub editors. The structure is based in the shape of pyramid where the base is most important which is kept in the lead in this type of news writing style.
- Chronological: This type of news does not require the most important part of the news to be in the first paragraph or lead. The news goes as per the sequence of the events without highlighting it in the first. The most important aspect in this type of news writing style is time.
- Hourglass: This type of new writing style consists lead as inverted pyramid and body as chronological. The most important information is mentioned in the lead but the other half follows and gives more importance to the sequence of events and time .
- Narrative: This type of news writing style is where story of a person is narrated. This is usually used in soft news because hard news cannot be in the form of narrative or as first person. The news story writing type tells story of the victim or anyone else. ]
Hence, the above mentioned are news structures.