Assignment 2


Show your acquaintance with the research procedure. Also elaborate: “The research design is a conceptual structure within which research is conducted”. Discuss various parts of the research design with suitable examples.

  • Research is the scientific method of investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Science is a way of thinking and that follows a particular type of procedure. The procedure are in sequence but it is not linear.

Below, eight research procedures are mentioned but the number can vary as per every individual researcher.

  1. Statement of Problem
  2. Literature Review
  3. Hypothesis
  4. Research Design
  5. Data Collection
  6. Data Analysis
  7. Findings/ Conclusion
  8. Replication

Research design contains a clear statement of the research problem, procedures and techniques to be used for gathering information, the population and sample to be studied and methods to be used in collecting, processing and analyzing data.

The research design can be split into following parts:

  1. The Sampling Design
  2. The Observational Design
  3. The Statistical Design
  4. The Operational Design
  1. The Sampling Design: A definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population is called sample design. Sampling design must result in a truly representative sample. It must have minimal error and must be viable in context of the funds. Systematic bias must be controlled. Sample study’s results should be such that it can be applied in general.

Sample designing consists of following steps:

  1. Defining the population concern
  2. Specification of a sampling frame
  • Deciding sample units
  1. Specification of sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame
  2. Specification of sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame
  3. Sampling and data collection
  • Review of sampling process

There are two types of sampling design:

  • Probability Sampling: If all the elements of population have equal chance of being included in the sample, it is probability sample. (eg: lottery)
  • Non-probability Sample: Here, not all the elements of population have equal chance of being in the sample.

2.  The Observational Design: This involves the process to get data. To visit the site (for field research) , to contact the person (for interview) etc

3. The Statistical Design: This involves the use of different statistics for data collection, data analysis and data test.

4. The Operational Design: This involves the actual process of doing the work. This includes aspects related to operation of that plan. Eg. Budget, Stationary etc


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