Communication came from the Latin word ‘communicare’ which means to make common. It is the process of disseminating information from one party to other with the help of sign or semiotics. The conceptual frame work that explains human communication process visually is called model of communication. The first model of communication came in 1948 as the Shannon and Weaver model of communication. Since then, many models have come up in western as well as eastern communication academia. And communication theory means the field of information theory from which studies technical process of information and human communication. There are many model of communications based on communication theories.
Sadharanikaran Model of Communication
Sadharanikaran Model of Communication is proposed by Dr. Nirmala Mani Adhikary in 2003 from the theory of Bhatta Nayak. Sadharikaran came from Sanskrit word Sadharan which while translating in English means ‘Generalized Presentation’. It is the systematic representation of communication from Hindu perspective. It is about ‘Bhava’ ‘ Rasa’ and revolves around another key word, ‘Saharidayata’. The word ‘Saharidayata’ is more ancient than the word Sadharikaran. It is derived from Sanskrit word, ‘Saman’ and ‘Hridaya’ which translated in English means ‘Common heart’.
The model says that when two parties interact with each other, they get ‘Saridayata’ and are called, ‘Saharidayas’. The word Saharidayata is also the closest demominator to the latin translation ‘Communicare’ which means to make common to English ‘Communication’.
The essence of Sadharikaran is to attain commonness or owness among people.
Aristotle’s Model of Communication
The first model of communication even before 300 B.C. is said to be Aristotle’s model of communication. Aristotle (384-322 B.C) born in Stagira, Northern Greece was a philosopher and writer who had studied logic, mathematics, physics and so on. The teacher of Alexander the Great devised a linear model of communication for oral communication. One of the first and widely accepted model of communications has five major elements; the speaker, speech, audience, occasion and effect.
It is a one way communication process because the speaker is most active here and the audience is passive being influenced by the speech of the speaker. The effect means the influence it has on the speaker. Here, the speaker prepares the speech before hand taking in account of the target audience. The speaker forms the speech in such a way that the words used by the speaker cater the audience’s interest and influence them.
Aristotle believed ‘Rhetoric’ is the study of communication and persuasion. He believed different messages should be made to different type of audiences because of their differences. This model of communication was used and is used in public speaking and sometimes making propaganda too.
For example: An Environmentalist ( speaker) speaks in a program in Environment Day
( occasion ) to students of Environment Science ( Audience) to stop pollution by repairing old vehicles in time so that they don’t emit poisonous smoke. The number of students who repair their old vehicles is the effect of the speech.
The Sadharanikaran model is the first eastern communication model that is represented in visual form which comprises of Hindu philosophy. Aristotle’s model of communication is the first western model of communication that was developed before 300 B.C. Both the models have a sender and a receiver. The sender sends a message and the receiver receives it.
The essence of Sadharanikaran model of communication is to bring own ness and commonness. The essence of Aristotle’s model of communication is to bring commonness by targeting an audience and pre preparing what to speak so that the effect results in commonness. In Aristotle’s model of communication, not just verbal communication but also non verbal like gestures are used to influence and persuade a crowd. So is it in Sadharanikaran Model of Communication. In Natyashastra itself, Bharata Muni has emphasized on a total communication effort including the use of the words as well as limbs, gestures, and body language along with the physical context in order to ensure communication at its best.
The Sadharanikaran Model of Communication and Aristotle’s model of communication are totally different from each other. The Sadharanikaran model of communication came from eastern philosophy so had different elements like:
- Sahridayas (Preshaka, i.e., sender, and Prapaka, i.e., receiver)
- Bhava (Moods or emotions)
- Abhivyanjana (Expression or encoding)
- Sandesha (Message or information)
- Sarani (Channel)
- Rasaswadana (Firstly receiving, decoding and interpreting the message and finally achieving the rasa)
- Doshas (Noises)
- Sandarbha (Context)
- Pratikriya (Process of feedback)
The Aristotle’s Model of Communication comprises of only five elements:
Both the models have sender but the Sadharanikaran Model of Communication has its sender as Bhava and the bhavas have been categorized into different types, such as sthayee bhavas (permanently dominant) , vyabhichari or sanchari bhavas (moving or transitory) and satvika or sattvaja bhavas (originating from the mind, temperamental).
Also, both the model have receiver but the receiver in Sadharanikaran Model of communication is called Rasa. Not all communication result in the attainment of rasa in its ideal form. Rasa is the essence or aesthetic enjoyment. Bharata Muni terms this as rasa because it is worthy of being tested (relished). Receiver on the other hand in Aristotle’s model of communication is the passive element who gets influenced by the words of the speaker.
Sadharanikaran Model of Communication is non-linear and is accepts feedback from the receiver where they share commonness. But Aristotle’s model of communication is linear and does not accept feed back or has no means of feedback. The scope of Sadharikaran Model of communication is also vast than Aristotle’s.
Hence, Sadharanikaran model of communication and Aristotle’s model of communication have vast differences even though they were one of the firsts in eastern and western model of communication. There were some similarities but he differences were vast. Aristotle’s model of communication caters very small type of communication such as public speech. It does not include inter personal or intra personal communication and has no space for feedback. While Shadharanikaran model of communication had a wider scope taking in account of the hierarchy which makes it realist and not Utopian type of model.